Month: March 2019

Bitter Rot

GLOMERELLA CINGULATA

Caused by fungus

Factors –

a- Small, brown, sunken lesions surrounded by a red halo appear on fruits.

b- The brown rot expands from the surface to the core of the fruit, forming a V-shaped pattern.

c- A few of these lesions enlarge and show small, black dots on their middle.

d- The decaying apple dries up and forms a so-called mummified fruit.

 

Hosting bodies – Apple and Cherry

Identifiable traits

Its primary symptoms appear during the spring as small grey or brown flecks on young fruits.

As soon as summer starts, these flecks have developed into small, sunken, brown lesions, sometimes surrounded by a conspicuous red halo. As soon as the conditions become favourable to them, a few of these lesions enlarge further and show small, black or dark brown dots on their middle. As time passes, the brown, watery rot expands from surface to the core of the fruit, forming a V-shaped pattern (cylindrical rot pattern around the core are typical of another disease of apple, bot rot). This decomposes the decaying apple and dries up and usually remains hanging on the branch, forming a so-called mummified fruit. Infections are characterized by small purple flecks that later enlarge to irregular necrotic areas of the leaves. Leaves that are affected severely turn yellow and eventually shed. The contagion of the disease to shoots will compromised flowering the following season. All varieties of apple are susceptible to bitter rot.

Inducing factors

The symptoms on leaves and fruit are caused by two different sexual stages of the same pathogen. The spots on leaves and fruit are the results of the colonization of the tissues by the sexual form Glomorella cingulate. Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes is the asexual form and is the causal agent for the fruit lesions later in the season. Infected wood and mummified fruits are the overwintering sites of the fungus. During the spring, it starts growing and produces spores that are released by rain splashes and dispersed by wind. As temperature elevates

 (25˚ C) and prolonged periods of leaf wetting favoured the life cycle of the fungus and infection development, but are more common in the latter half of the season. Epidemic proportion and immense loss can be reached during prolonged periods of wet warm weather during fruit growth.

 
 

Organic remedies

An antagonist, Metchnikowia pulcherrima T5-A2, was uses in combination with heat treatment to control bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples under controlled conditions. These treatments still needs to be tested in the field trials depending on their productivity.

Chemical remedies

If available, always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological treatments. Spraying every fortnight with preparations based on dinathion, copper or sulphur can generate effective results if a good sanitation program is followed. If periods of warm, wet weather occur, it is imperative to spray more frequently than every 14 days.

 

Extra remedies

Make sure entire field is properly sanitised. At low incidence, monitor the orchards and remove diseased fruit from the tree during the growing season. Infected parts (wood and tress residues) must be removed and destroyed after harvest. Alternatively, mow dead braches on the ground in order to increase the rate of decomposing. Plant fortifier can be applied to keep the plan resistant against such infections. Maintain a balanced fertilization program.

 

 

 

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Hairy Caterpillars

Hairy caterpillars

EUPROCTIS FRATERNA

Factors – 

a- Defoliation of the mango trees caused by reddish brown, hairy larvae with single tufts on each end.

b- Young pupil larvae are covered with whitish hair.

c- The moth is bright yellow with darker lines and black dots on forewings.

Hosting body – MANGO

Identifiable traits

In the early stage of hairy caterpillars have long white hairs coming from the flanks of their body. Their main feed is leaves of mango trees in groups and several other tree species.

The developed/mature larvae feature a red head covered with white hair and a reddish brown body. Larvae pupate in a cocoon of hairs on branches and leaves and also have a single tuft in the head. The moths are bright yellow and has forewings with transversal lines which are dark and black dots near the edge of wings.

 

Inducing factors

They are similar to two species of caterpillars with similar features which damages leaves and defoliation. The females lay yellow, circular, flat eggs in clusters on the lower surface of leaves. Their laid eggs are suspicious because they are covered with yellow brown hair and scales over them. These larvae hatch generally between 4-10 days. They feed for about 13 to 29 days on tree leaves until they convert to a cocoon. In between 9-25 days in a silk cocoon the adult moth hatches. During winter season the larvae may perform dormancy.

Organic remedies

Burning torches can be used to terminate/decimate them as they feed in tight groups. Sprays of neem (Azadirachta indica L.) and dhatura (datura stramonium L.) extracts controls caterpillar populations and reduces it. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is a microbial pesticide which kills the caterpillar by crippling the gut.

Chemical remedies

If available, always consider an integrated approach with preventive measures together with biological treatments. Insecticide sprays containing cyphermethrin, deltamethrin, fluvalinat are effective against hairy caterpillars.

Extra remedies

Regular monitoring of the orchard for eggs, larvae, moths and cocoons. Find, collect and destroy the caterpillars, cocoons and egg clusters in minor cases. Adult moths can be controlled using light traps.

 

 

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American Bollworm

American bollworm has been identified to attack more than 180 host plants. These host plants include beans, maize, tomato, legumes etc. It has caused so much damage to the fields and has developed resistance to so many insectides that it has been popularly given the name of a global pest.

In the moth phase they are brownish yellow in color with a black spot on the fore wings and a broad black patch on the margin of the hind wing. Larvae are green when they are young and their color varies when the larvae grows in size. The eggs are laid only singly on the leaves and are white in color.

They hatch in a time span of 3 to 4 days. The new larvae feed on the leaves after hatching and attach the near by bolls by keeping half of the body inside the bolls and half of its body outside.

The larval period is of around 25 days long whereas the pupal period is around 10 days long. 

Some of the damage symptoms are as follows:

The squares which are affected by the American bollworm shows flaring up with its brackets spread out.

Holes can be seen on the squares by the internal tissues which are being fed by the larval and hollowed by it.

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