Farming Blogs

Introduction:

Yield calculation of the crop is very important for assessing the production and it depends on many variables like soil, weather, agricultural practices (date of planting, amount of irrigation and fertilizer use), seeds and biotic stress.

Remote sensing provides an effective and efficient way to forecast yield. Remote sensing has been widely used by many institutions across world to calculate area and yield of a crop.

In this paper, we focus on forecasting yield of wheat based on data from Sentinel-2 satellite data. The study area was wheat crop in Saharsa (Bihar). The crop is in advanced stage and has vegetated fully and harvest is expected in next 20 days.

Methodology:

 Data from Sentinel-2 was used and random fields were selected from the mapped area and yield     was calculated using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and LAI (Leaf Area Index).

Farmonaut platform was used to map fields to create bounded regions (fields) as shown in Figure-2. On the dates of observations the sample fields were free from clouds and normal data was observed. Crop classification was done manually by ground truthing to ascertain the crop is standing in the field.

Maximum NDVI was used to calculate yields for the given fields which means peak vegetative growth rate. Peak vegetative growth helps to forecast yields more accurately.

Below are the observations of NDVI of the various fields. The maximum NDVI was reached on 21 Feb 2021 which was used to calculate yield. From the maximum NDVI, LAI was calculated which was subsequently used to calculate yield. This approach is being used after going through a lot of available texts and final model was considered.

In this procedure the estimated LAI was used with WTGROWS model for yield mapping. This model suggests direct correlation between grain yields and LAI. This relationship was applied to all the fields to calculate yields.

NDVI started to rise after planting of crop in November continued to rise until 21-Feb-2021 making the data as best date for calculating yield. The NDVI started falling after 21-Feb-2021 and will fall until harvest. Best results of yield is obtained when the NDVI is maximum.  

 

NDVI and LAI showed the best correlation for the estimated yields. The yields ranged from 3.5 Tons/ha to 3.7 Tons/ha.  Figure-1

 

 

 

Area (sq. m.)

16-Feb-21

21-Feb-21

26-Feb-21

03-Mar-21

Maximum LAI

Estimated Yield  Kg/ha

Field 1

3600

0.6

0.7

0.7

0.7

2.912119253

3713

Field 2

7700

0.6

0.7

0.69

0.67

2.912119253

3713

Field 3

1500

0.59

0.7

0.7

0.69

2.912119253

3713

Field 4

3100

0.6

0.7

0.7

0.69

2.912119253

3713

Field 5

6600

0.59

0.7

0.68

0.67

2.912119253

3713

Field 6

2700

0.57

0.7

0.68

0.67

2.912119253

3713

Field 7

2000

0.52

0.64

0.64

0.64

2.532181241

3493

Field 8

4300

0.59

0.7

0.7

0.7

2.912119253

3713

Field 9

1700

0.52

0.65

0.66

0.64

2.591873781

3530

Field 10

3700

0.6

0.7

0.7

0.69

2.912119253

3713

 

Results:

Data from government institution show the wheat yield in Madhepura district of Bihar ta 3.8 Tons/ha which is just next to Saharsa district.

The above mentioned yields can vary depending upon weather before harvest. If normal condition prevail then the above yields can be achieved subject to error of 10%.

The researches done in the area of yield forecasting of field crops by remote sensing has demonstrated good results. With the help of new sensors and indexes, researchers can calculate yields with less errors in future.

ESTIMATION OF THE YIELD OF POTATOES

INTRODUCTION

India is country which has an economy dependent on the agriculture. The production and distribution of agriculture is very much associated with the economy of India. Crop growth and yield monitoring over agricultural fields is an essential procedure for food security and agricultural economic return prediction. The advances in remote sensing have enhanced the process of monitoring the development of agricultural crops and estimating their yields. Achieving the maximum crop yield at the lowest investment is an ultimate goal of farmers in their quest towards an economically efficient agricultural production. Early detection of problems associated with crop yield can greatly help in reducing the loss and reaching the targeted yield and profit. Potato is classified as being the fourth major staple around the globe, which is still quickly attaining importance. The growing interest in potato, along with the diminishing agricultural lands, introduces the need for germplasm yield enhancement, better crop protection and much more efficient and productive management systems. Prediction of potato crop yield prior to the harvest period can be very useful in pre-harvest and marketing decision making. Many studies showed that traditional methods of crop yield estimation could lead to poor crop yield assessment and inaccurate crop area appraisal. In addition, these methods normally depend on rigorous field data collection of crop and yield, which is a costly and time-consuming process. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies can be used to assess the temporal variation in crop dynamics, including crop yield and its spatial variability. Visible (blue, green and red) and near infrared (NIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum have already proven their effectiveness in accessing information on crop type, crop health, soil moisture, nitrogen stress and crop yield. Advancement in RS techniques enhanced the use of multispectral images as an effective tool in determining and monitoring vegetation conditions, crop stress and crop yield prediction. Liu and Kogan revealed that remote sensing data offered exceptional spatial and temporal land surface characteristics, including the environmental impacts on crop growth. Numerous studies have reported that there could be a good correlation between the vegetation indices provided by the RS techniques and the crop yield and biomass. A crop yield research that is conducted at a regional scale, which employs coarse or low-resolution satellite images, can provide a broader information on the crop canopy conditions and crop yield estimates. Hence, decisions in the quantitative export and import of the product within the region could be made in assured way.

What environmental factors affect the yield?

 

Plant growth and geographic distribution are greatly affected by the environment. If any environmental factor is less than ideal, it limits a plant’s growth and/or distribution. Environmental factors that affect plant growth include light, temperature, water, humidity, and nutrition. It is important to understand how these factors affect plant growth and development. With a basic understanding of these factors, you may be able to manipulate plants to meet your needs, whether for increased leaf, flower, or fruit production. By recognizing the roles of these factors, you also will be better able to diagnose plant problems caused by environmental stress.

                        i.         Light: Three principal characteristics of light affect plant growth are quantity, quality, and duration. Light quantity refers to the intensity, or concentration, of sunlight. It varies with the seasons. The maximum amount of light is present in summer, and the minimum in winter. Light quality refers to the colour (wavelength) of light. Blue and red light, which plants absorb, have the greatest effect on plant growth. Blue light is responsible primarily for vegetative (leaf) growth. Red light, when combined with blue light, encourages flowering. Plants look green to us because they reflect, rather than absorb, green light. Duration refers to the amount of time a plant is exposed to light. Photoperiod controls flowering in many plants. Scientists initially thought the length of light period triggered flowering and other responses within plants. Thus, they describe plants as short-day or long-day, depending on what conditions they flower under. We now know that it is not the length of the light period, but rather the length of uninterrupted darkness, that is critical to floral development.

                       ii.         Temperature: Temperature influences most plant processes, including photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration, germination, and flowering. As temperature increases (up to a point), photosynthesis, transpiration, and respiration increase. When combined with day-length, temperature also affects the change from vegetative (leafy) to reproductive (flowering) growth. Depending on the situation and the specific plant, the effect of temperature can either speed up or slow down this transition. Low temperatures reduce energy use and increase sugar storage. Thus, leaving crops such as ripe winter squash on the vine during cool, fall nights increases their sweetness. Adverse temperatures, however, cause stunted growth and poor-quality vegetables.

                     iii.         Water and Humidity: Most growing plants contain about 90 percent water. Water plays many roles in plants. It is a primary component in photosynthesis and respiration. Responsible for turgor pressure in cells (Like air in an inflated balloon, water is responsible for the fullness and firmness of plant tissue. Turgor is needed to maintain cell shape and ensure cell growth.) A solvent for minerals and carbohydrates moving through the plant. Responsible for cooling leaves as it evaporates from leaf tissue during transpiration. A regulator of stomatal opening and closing, thus controlling transpiration and, to some degree, photosynthesis. The source of pressure to move roots through the soil. The medium in which most biochemical reactions take place.

 

                     iv.         Plant Nutrition: Plant nutrition often is confused with fertilization. Plant nutrition refers to a plant’s need for and use of basic chemical elements. Fertilization is the term used when these materials are added to the environment around a plant. A lot must happen before a chemical element in a fertilizer can be used by a plant. Plants need 17 elements for normal growth. Three of them carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are found in air and water. The rest are found in the soil. Six soil elements are called macronutrients because they are used in relatively large amounts by plants. They are nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and sulphur.

What soil factors affect the yield?

Potatoes grow best during cooler weather. Plant potatoes 2-4 weeks before the last frost in the spring, when the soil temperature is at least 40 degrees F. In warm climates, potatoes are planted from January to March and harvested between March and June. In cooler areas, potato-planting time is usually between April and June, with harvest between July and September. Plant potatoes where they will receive full sun, and choose and well-drained, acidic soil. Avoid planting in the same spot in which peppers, eggplants, or tomatoes were grown in the previous season, as potatoes are particularly susceptible to diseases carried by those plants. Cut seed potatoes into 1- to 2-inch squares with two to three eyes (bud sprouts) per piece, then allow them to dry for a couple of days before planting. Plant seed potatoes 12 to 18 inches apart and four inches deep. The eyes should be facing up and the cut side facing down. If planting in-ground, space rows 24 to 36 inches apart to leave room for hilling and walking between the plants.

Does harvesting method play a role in increased/decreased yield?

Harvest “new” (immature) potatoes for eating after the plant begins flowering. Gently scratch some soil under the plants aside and feel around for a few small tubers and pull them out, then replace the soil so the plants will keep growing. For full-sized potatoes, wait until after the tops of the plants have died. Carefully dig up the entire plant using a garden fork, doing your best not to bruise or pierce the potatoes. Bring them inside and keep them in a dark, cool, humid spot (such as an unfinished basement or garage) for two weeks to “cure” so the skins will thicken and dry for storing. Store in a covered, ventilated box or bin.

 

What indices are generally used for this kind of study?

Monitoring of crop growth and forecasting its yield well before harvest is very important for crop and food management. Remote sensing images are capable of identifying crop health, as well as predicting its yield. Vegetation indices (VIs), such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), Soil adjusted vegetative index (SAVI), normalised differential water index (NDWI) calculated from remotely sensed data have been widely used to monitor crop growth and to predict crop yield.

RESULTS

The fields of potato observed and the Normalised Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalised Differential Water Index (NDWI) Vegetative Condition Index (VCI) are calculated. The values of indices are given below.

The above image shows the NDVI values of the study area. The value of NDVI varies from -1 to +1, as the values increases the amount of vegetation increases. The study area is observed for two months from April to May. From the above image we can identify the changes in the level of vegetation for each period of time.

Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) is used to differentiate water from the dry land or rather most suitable for water body mapping. Water bodies have a low radiation and strong absorbability in the visible infrared wavelengths range. The value of NDWI varies from -1 to +1.

The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) is an optimized vegetation index designed to enhance the vegetation signal with improved sensitivity in high biomass regions and improved vegetation monitoring through a de-coupling of the canopy background signal and a reduction in atmosphere influences. The value range of EVI is between -1 to +1 and with healthy vegetation generally around 0.20 to 0.80.

CONCLUSION

The estimation of yield of potatoes using remote sensing is a very toughest process. The cultivation of potato in the study area was during March 2020 to May 2020 and the satellite data of that period is used for the study. Various indices like NDVI, NDWI, EVI are used to estimate the growth of plants and by that estimate the outcome. The values of NDVI, NDWI and EVI for beginning of April month is 0.33, 0.32, 0.31 respectively. The crops are in the beginning stages of the growth and so NDVI and EVI value are higher. The NDWI value shows some water stress in the soil. Similarly, the values of April last week are 0.34 for NDVI, 0.23 for NDWI and 0.31 for EVI. Also, for first week of May is 0.32 for NDVI, 0.21 for NDWI and 0.31 for EVI. The results for last week of May is 0.48 for NDVI, 0.41 for NDWI, 0.48 for EVI.

 

The values of May last week shows that the crop has attained a very good condition. The water stress in the field is good, and so the yield of the crop will be better. On analysing the values of the different considered indices, we can conclude that the crop shows a very good health conditions, by that we can expect a very good amount of yield. The potatoes in each field of our study area will give a moderately above amount of yield.

We will keep posting about any such informative information on to our blogs, to help as many people as possible. Farmonaut is built upon a vision to bridge the technological gap between farmers and strives to bring state-of-the-art technologies in the hands of each and every farmer. For any queries/suggestions, please contact us at support@farmonaut.com.

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Evapotranspirartion In Agriculture

Evapotranspiration is a crucial process by which water is transferred from the land to the atmosphere by evaporation from the soil and by transpiration from living plants.

Button 3: Select a field: By clicking on this button, the user will be taken to another screen on which they can select the boundary points of a region they want to be monitored through satellites. A point can be selected on the map by long pressing on the screen for about 1 second. At least three points must be selected. Once the points are selected, the user will click on the submit button. At this point, our server will generate metadata of the selected field including the approximate field area of the bounded region. According to the field area, the payment screen will appear through which user will have to select one of the four options (1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months) depending upon the cultivation cycle of the user.

 

 

Button 1: My Fields: The button opens another screen on which the field results are visualized on the map. If the user has multiple fields, they can toggle between results of multiple fields from the field addresses given at the bottom of the screen. On the right side, there are buttons of : Map Controls, Index Results, Reports, Weather Data and Field Chat. 

 

 

Map Controls: From map controls, users can choose a. which index result to display on the map, b. the date of the satellite visit of the results, c. the colormap of the displayed result. By clicking the “show on map” button, the results of the selected option will be displayed on the map.

Index Results: On this screen, a line graph is displayed of several indices, providing a time series analysis of the field.

 

 

Reports: On this screen, the dates for which the reports are available is displayed. These dates are listed in two different categories: successful days and failed days. Successful days are the days on which the satellite was able to capture results of the field successfully. Failed days are the days on which the satellite was not able to capture results of the field due to cloud cover. By clicking on any on the dates, the report will be displayed on the app.

Weather Data: This screen provides the current weather data as well as weather forecast of the field (7 days forecast).

Field Chat: On this screen, users can start discussion about their fields (problems, solutions etc) with other community members. Users can upload field images too with the post and comment on the posts as well as the individual images.

 

Button 2: Public Fields: This screen consists of a list of our farmers who have voluntarily made their field data public so that the other farmers can see the progress of these farmers through time. By clicking on the address of the public field, user will be directed to the map on which the field results will be displayed.

We will keep posting about any such informative information on to our blogs, to help as many people as possible. Farmonaut is built upon a vision to bridge the technological gap between farmers and strives to bring state-of-the-art technologies in the hands of each and every farmer. For any queries/suggestions, please contact us at support@farmonaut.com.

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FARMONAUT

Satellite Based Crop Health Monitoring, Crop Issue Identification System, Farmers’ Social Network, Govt. Approved Farming Database, Satellite Imagery Access For Research and Much More

Soil Organic Carbon And Its Importance In Agriculture

INTRODUCTION

Soil organic carbon is the carbon that remains in the soil after partial decomposition of any material produced by living organisms. It is present as a main component of soil organic matter and is
believed to play crucial role for many soil functions and ecological properties. The amount of organic carbon present in a soil depends upon the local geology, climatic conditions, land use and management. Organic carbon is mainly present in the top soil (2500 pg of c to 2-m depth).The amount of carbon that is present in the soil is twice larger the amount present in atmosphere hence soil act as an important reservoir of carbon. 

IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE

Soil organic carbon is the basis of sustainable agriculture. Farmers are interested in retaining and increasing soil organic carbon for individual fields in order to improve soil health and yield. One of the main reasons behind this is the ability of soil organic carbon in maintaining the soil fertility. SOC improves soil aeration, water retention capacity, drainage, and enhances microbial growth. As carbon stored in the soil is increased carbon is “sequestered” (long -term storage) and risk of loss of nutrients through leaching and erosion is reduced. When the amount of carbon in the soil is increased it reduces the amount of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere which provides a better climatic condition for plant growth. An increase in soil organic carbon results in more stable carbon cycle and enhanced overall agricultural productivity. 

DEPLETION OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON

According to the study conducted in Sweden, nationwide the 270 TG c stocks in agriculture surface soil is rapidly decreasing at a rate of 1 TG per year. One of the reasons behind this according to the study of GUO and GIFFORD is change in land use pattern. There is a chance of reduction of 10% of c stock when there is change in land use from forest to crop land. Unsustainable management practices like excessive irrigation, over grazing, deforestation, excessive tillage, practice of burning agricultural fields also causes soc losses. A large amount of carbon in the soil is reduced due to plant harvesting processes. The process of decomposition done by micro-organisms present in the soil where half of the organic carbon is released in the form of carbon dioxide is a major reason behind soil organic carbon depletion. Greater root bio-mass also results in carbon loss due to increased rate of respiration that take place through these roots. The amount of organic carbon present in the soil is affected by factors like climate, texture, hydrology (water content), land use and vegetation. When the amount of carbon in soil is reduced it affects the ability of soil to supply nutrients to the plant which in turn leads to low yield and affect food security. It also reduces the soil bio-diversity since it affects the growth of microbes. Global warming also contributes in depletion of organic matter present in the soil.

PRACTICES TO PROMOTE SOIL CARBON STORAGE 

Soil carbon storage is a vital ecosystem service. In an agricultural land soil carbon loss takes place as a result of improper methods of soil managements such as excessive tillage, increased rate of irrigation, increased use of chemical fertilizers etc. 

  • One of the most effective methods for leaving the soil undisturbed is the practice of zero-tillage. 
  • Soil fertility can be maintained by introducing proper management strategy for grazing and by reducing the use of chemical fertilizers. Replacing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers and manures will help to restore the soil health. 
  • Erosion of top soil which brings down the amount of carbon present in soil can be controlled by maintaining the ground cover. Growing cover crops like eucalyptus can reduce the wash away of top soil. 
  • Excessive irrigation can deteriorate soil health. So the amount of water supplied to the plants should be according to its needs, not more, not less. 
  • Another method of increasing carbon storage is by growing high yield, high biomass crops. 
  • The amount of carbon present in the soil will increase if the crop frequency of a place is maxi-mum.

HOW TO ACHIEVE THIS 

Monitoring the field to assess whether the change in management is restoring or depleting the carbon resource is an important step towards protecting the soil organic carbon content. This can be done using the technology of remote sensing. Quantitative and qualitative estimation of soil using the conventional method is difficult since soil show variability from site to site even within the same field. The method of remote sensing is cost-effective and rapid. FARMONAUT app uses remote sensing technology to create a SOC image that provides color map of percentage of organic matter present in the selected field. If the content of SOC is more than 5% the area appears dark green in the color map and it appears red if the SOC content is less than 1%.Change in SOC content with time is also  noted with the help of remote sensing in FARMONAUT. This provides precise information to the farmers which help them to take the right measures, in the right time, and in the right place hence ensuring productivity and soil health. 

Once Farmonaut data has identified some locations to be having less SOC levels, farmers can get the soil testing done on those regions and add required nutrients to those regions to rejuvenate the soil organic matter levels. This will ultimately lead to better yields.

We will keep posting about any such informative information on to our blogs, to help as many people as possible. Farmonaut is built upon a vision to bridge the technological gap between farmers and strives to bring state-of-the-art technologies in the hands of each and every farmer. For any queries/suggestions, please contact us at support@farmonaut.com.

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How Natural Farming Can Reinvent The Way Farming is Done Today - Viswamatha Farms | A Case Study

The agricultural practices in use today have a very big impact on the environment. Pollutants, waste, soil degradation, irrigation problems, deforestation, climate change are damaging the agriculture in one way or the other. Excessive use of urea, nitrate, pesticides etc. have affected air, water, and soil quality in a severe way.

Natural Farming

Natural farming is touted as the answer to the above mentioned issues. It was first made popular by Masanobu Fukuoka (Japan) and is famously known as ‘Do-nothing farming’ or ‘No-tillage farming’. This idea in it’s simplest form is to allow nature play a prominent role to as much extent as possible. The farmer is only considered as a care-taker and most of the work is done by the nature itself. Moreover, there are no good or bad organisms in a natural farm. Existence of all of them is important for a balanced ecosystem.

Key Principles of Natural Farming

No till farming – growth of weeds is enhanced if the soil is ploughed since it alters the natural environment of the soil.

No weeding by tillage or herbicides – weeds are suppressed by spreading straw over newly sown land and growing ground cover.

No chemical fertilizers – adding chemical fertilizers can help in the growth of the plant but not of the soil.

No chemical pesticides – nature’s own balancing act prevents any one species from gaining the upper hand.

Viswamatha Farms

Viswamatha farms was born from a passion to share natural farming with the world.

http://viswamathafarms.com/

It believes in the power of nature and the positive change it can have on our land and peoples lives. It is  passionate about real natural food that tastes great, is of highest quality, is full of nutrients and is good for our health and environment.

All the products are produced by natural farming techniques of Shri.Subhash Palekar ji with out using any chemicals.

Viswamatha Farms has been using Farmonaut’s Satellite Based Crop Health Monitoring System since September, 2019.

 

About The Farm

Viswamatha farms owns and cultivates pulses, millets, rice, spices, groundnut, gingle, vegetables and fruits. The farm is situated in Andhra Pradesh, south India.

The farm is a healthy mix of agriculture, horticulture, floriculture and animal husbandary. Apart from their own farms, viswamatha farms has created natural farming farmers group to cater to the growing requirement of quality products.

Viswamatha farms owns Ongole breed cows and country chicken for farm yard manure. The Cows & country chicken are stress free and free to roam and graze in the fields. 

 

 

Natural Farming Practices Used By Viswamatha Farms

Viswamatha farms enrich the soil nutrients by using jeevamruth which is a fermented microbial culture. It provides nutrients but most importantly acts as catalytic agent that promotes the activities of micro-organism in the soil as well as increases earth worms activity. During 48 hours of fermentation process the aerobic and anaerobic bacteria present in the cow dung and cow urine multiply as they eat up organic ingradient (pulse flour mixed in the jeevamruth) in the jeevamruth. A handful of undisturbed soil from the field bunds also added to jeevamruth as inoculate of native spices of microbes and organism.

 

Jeevamruth also helps to prevent fungal and bacterial plant diseases.

Insects and pests are managed by using specially prepared mixtures called as neemastram, agniastram, brahastram, dasaparni kashayam. These mixtures involve cow dung, cow urine, neem leaves, neem pulp, green chillies and other herbs as required to manage the pests and diseases.

Impact of Natural Farming Methods in Combination With Remote Sensing in the Previous Season

Viswamatha Farms harvested their major crop Red Gram in the month of February, 2020. The images below attached are of the red gram plants in the Viswamatha farms nearly after one month of harvesting.

The images shown below are of the farm nearby to Viswamatha farms which was using the contemporary methods of farming (not natural farming) and also harvested red gram from their field at the same. The images are of one month after the harvesting was done.

As we can clearly see, the red gram plants in the neighboring field of Viswamatha farms are completely dead and dry, whereas the same are still live and healthy in Viswamatha farms even after one month.

Natural Farming in Combination With Remote Sensing

In parallel to the natural farming practices, Viswamatha farms has also been referring to the satellite data provided by Farmonaut through our platform (available on android, iOS as well as web app) to take field level actions and minimize the efforts even further.

Viswamatha Farms is one of our most important users and as quoted by Mr. G.K. Rao of Viswamatha Farms:

“We are bringing awareness on progressive farmers and asking them to use your services for the crop monitoring”

By using satellite data provided by us, farmers can:

1. Reduce Chemical/Fertilizer consumption by applying them only in the locations where crop health is not good.

2. Reduce Labour costs by directing the labours only in those field areas where crop health is critical.

3. Reduce irrigation water wastage by applying proper irrigation only in those locations where plant water stress is low.

4. Increase overall yield.

For any queries and collaborations, please feel free to contact us on: support@farmonaut.com or +91-6366026267.

MoU Signed With STEI Foundation Africa

We are delighted to announce that we have signed a two-year MoU with STEI Foundation, Africa.

STEi Foundation ( Sustainable TransEnvironment International Foundation) was established in 2017 to contribute to greening the environment and empowering the women and young people in rural Africa and currently has a representation in Thirteen (13) African Countries, namely: Ghana, Tanzania, Tunisia, South Africa, Cameron, Angola, Mauritius, Kenya, Rwanda, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Nigeria.  Nigeria is the seat of STEi Foundation’s Corporate Governance.

The objective of this MoU is:

Promotion of Remote Sensing technologies for farming amongst the farmers in Nigeria and the countries in Africa in which the STEI Foundation is present.

Through this program, Farmonaut in collaboration with the STEI Foundation will:

1. Create awareness amongst the farmers about the importance of remote sensing technology in agriculture. 

 

2. Educate farmers about the scientific background of the working of the remote sensing technology and the ways it can increase crop yield, reduce irrigation water loss and reduce fertilizers/chemical usage. 

 

3. Assist farmers with understanding the remote sensing technologies provided by Farmonaut and encourage them in using the remote sensing system provide by Farmonaut. 

Farmonaut will provide the technological support to the STEI foundation and the STEI foundation will be conducting the on-field engagement support to make this program a success. 

 

 

Remote Sensing Technologies Provided By Farmonaut

1. Crop Health Monitoring 

 

Farmers can select their field and identify the regions of the field at which the crop growth is not normal. Upon identifying that region of their fields, they can simply pay a visit to that part of the field and identify if the problem has already started. If it has not, the farmer can take preventive remedies by applying more fertilizers, plant growth regulators etc. If the problem has already started, they can simply explain their problem to Farmonaut’s crop issue identification system and get real-time govt. approved remedies. For the same, our system provides two different sets of images. One set of images provide crop health status if your crop is in the early stage of growth and the second set of images provided crop health status if your crop is in the later stage of growth.

 

Read More in Detail on these links.

 

Early Stage Crop Health: https://farmonaut.com/blogs/remote-sensing/normalized-difference-vegetation-index-ndvi/

 

Later Stage Crop Health: https://farmonaut.com/blogs/remote-sensing/ndvi-vs-ndre-and-their-applications-in-agriculture/

 

 

 

2. Vegetation Water Level Monitoring 

Vegetation cover on the earth’s surface undergoes severe stress during a drought. If affected areas are not identified in time, entire crops may be damaged. Hence, the early detection of water stress can prevent many of the negative impacts on crops. Vegetation Water Level Imagery provided by Farmonaut can help control irrigation, significantly improving agriculture, especially in areas where meeting the need for water is difficult.

Read more in detail on this link: https://farmonaut.com/blogs/remote-sensing/normalized-difference-water-index-ndwi/

Using automated crop monitoring service, farmers will automatically receive a. crop health report and b. vegetation water level report from latest satellite imagery every 5-10 days. They will also be updated with near real-time weather report of their field from the nearest weather station. They can put multiple fields for monitoring from their profile as well.The satellite imagery is updated every 5- 10 days and has a resolution of 10 meters.

The app is available on the following link:

 https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.farmonaut.android

We will keep posting about any such informative information on to our blogs, to help as many people as possible. Farmonaut is built upon a vision to bridge the technological gap between farmers and strives to bring state-of-the-art technologies in the hands of each and every farmer. For any queries/suggestions, please contact us at support@farmonaut.com.

We have some more interesting articles coming up soon. Stay tuned!

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Research Collaboration with Chippy Pushpangathan on a DST funded project in Precision Agriculture

At Farmonaut, we believe if any research is being conducted for the benefit of the farming community, we must stand together to make it’s benefits reach to as many farmers as possible. And, we are always delighted to work with researchers to help the farming community with providing the latest technologies. One such latest collaboration which we feel is going to contribute to the farming community is with Chippy Pushpangathan.

 

 

chippy-pushpangathan

Chippy Pushpangathan is a Research Scholar and is pursuing her PhD at the Department of Geography, School of Earth Sciences, Central University of Karnataka. Her broad area of research covers crop yield modelling using geospatial technology.

Her research topic is broadly centered around: 

“Potential of Precision Agriculture Using Geospatial Information For Kharif Cultivation in Kalaburagi District, Karnataka, India”

The research work is a crop centric work wherein the main focus will be towards identifying the potential of precision agriculture using geospatial information (more specifically the possibility of microwave remote sensing) for rain-fed pigeon pea (Kharif Tur Dal).  The research work will focus on the farming land in and around Kalaburagi district and will focus on Tur Dal of this Kharif season of 2019 (June to November). This research work is funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DST, Govt. of India) under INSPIRE Scheme.

 

Chippy aspires to make her research outcomes to reach the ground level farming community, hence this collaboration serves the common objective of both her and Farmonaut. Before the actual field work starts in June 2019, our combined objective is to ideate and gather kalaburagi district centric useful information as well as identifying the further technological needs which Farmonaut may be able to provide depending upon the feasibility (apart from our already publicly usable systems) once the actual work starts.

At Farmonaut, we believe that by combining the on-field research study conducted by Chippy Pushpangathan when combined with technological tools provided by Farmonaut as well the access to the growing farming community of Farmonaut, the entire research will surely provide a better insight to the farmers of Kalaburagi district and possibly the research work will be replicable to other parts of the country as well.

In the coming months, we will keep updating everyone of the progress of the ongoing research collaboration on atleast a monthly basis.

Farmonaut currently provides two satellite imagery based products, namely:

Satellite Based Crop Health Monitoring System For Farmers (Android):

Farmonaut provides satellite based crop health monitoring system, through which farmers can select their field and identify the regions of the field at which the crop growth is not normal. Upon identifying that region of their fields, they can simply pay a visit to that part of the field and identify if the problem has already started. If it has not, the farmer can take preventive remedies by applying more fertilizers, plant growth regulators etc. If the problem has already started, they can simply explain their problem to Farmonaut’s crop issue identification system and get real-time govt. approved remedies.

 

Satellite Imagery Access For Research System (Android and Website)

For research purposes (non-farming usage), Farmonaut provides access to satellite imagery of any place around the through our website and android app. The satellite imagery is provided at the cheapest market rates. Accessing satellite imagery through our website is a fairly simple process:

 

 

 

Step 1:  Select the date range (From and To Date)

Step 2: Select Imagery bands required (You can select from 13 raw bands and 7 Farmonaut Processed bands)

Step 3: Select the area on the Map for which you are requesting the imagery for.

Step 4: Submit this request… wait for a few seconds

Step 5: Select specific days for which you need the imagery for.

Step 6: Make payment and voila!

You will receive the imagery automatically into your email address within the displayed time interval.

The app is available for android on Google PlayStore: 

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.farmonaut.android

We will keep posting about any such informative information on to our blogs, to help as many people as possible. Farmonaut is built upon a vision to bridge the technological gap between farmers and strives to bring state-of-the-art technologies in the hands of each and every farmer. For any queries/suggestions, please contact us at support@farmonaut.com.

We have some more interesting articles coming up soon. Stay tuned!

Wait!!

Before that…

Follow us at:

Facebook: https://facebook.com/farmonaut

Instagram: https://instagram.com/farmonaut

Twitter: https://twitter.com/farmonaut

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/farmonaut/

Pinterest: https://in.pinterest.com/farmonaut/

Tumblr: https://farmonaut.tumblr.com/

Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYWOOPPKATLgh4L6YRlYFOQ

AppLink: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.farmonaut.android

Website: https://farmonaut.com

Satellite Imagery: https://farmonaut.com/satellite-imagery

Satellite Imagery Samples: https://farmonaut.com/satellite-imagery-samples

Why Farmonaut's Database is One of the Most Trusted Database

Farmonaut always strives to think from a farmer’s perspective to keep building the right solutions for the community. One of such steps is the development of Farmonaut Database. We have collected farming data from different government approved sources, analyzed them and refined it to bring the best formatted information available to the farmers.

The government database is a result of rigorous research of several years which includes information about what insecticide, pesticide, and/or plant growth regulator should be used for a given crop. However, the database is openly available in the format of a huge document file with hundreds of pages.  It is really unreasonable to expect a farmer to download this large document and scroll through hundreds of pages to identify what the potential problem is with their crop.

Thus, the first thing we did is to sanitize this government approved database, and present it to the farmers in a user-friendly manner.

The segregated database is accessible through our android app and contains government approved information about 100+ crops, 300+ problems and 150+ chemicals (pesticides, insecticides, plant growth regulators etc.). The database includes very specific details of chemical usage such as Quantity, Formulation (g/ml)% and Dilution in water (L).

The Farmonaut database is presented in a fairly accessible form. A farmer can simply click on whether they want to check the information about a crop, a disease/problem or a government approved chemical.

If a farmer clicks on the “Crops” button and selects a crop from the given list of 100+ crops, he/she can see what government approved solutions they should be using if a certain disease/problem outbreaks in their farming field. For example, if a farmer selects Apple from the given list of crops, the database will show that if the apple crop has the problem of scab, they can use chemicals like: Captan 50% WG, Captan 75% WP,  Copper Hydroxide 77% WP, Difenoconazole 25% EC) etc. with their specific details like Quantity, Formulation (g/ml)% and Dilution in water (L) etc.. Similarly, if the apple crop has the problem of Powdery Mildew, they can use chemicals like: Lime Sulphur 22% SC, Sulphut 80% WP etc. with their given specific details.

If a farmer clicks on the “Identified Issues” button and selects a problem/disease from the given list of 300+ problems, he/she can see what government approved solutions they should be using if that disease outbreaks in the given list of crops. For, example, if a farmer selects Black Rot from the given list of 300+ problems/diseases, the database will show that if black rot occurs in Coffee, then they can use Copper Oxychloride 50% WG with the given specific details. Similarly, if black rot occurs in Apple, then they can use Zineb 75% WP with the given specific details.

If a farmer clicks on the “Chemicals” button and selects a chemical from the given list of 150+ government approved chemicals (pesticides, insecticides, plant growth regulators etc.), he/she can see what different crops and different diseases can this chemical be used for. For example, if a farmer selects Zineb 75% WP from the given list of 150+ chemicals, they can see that Zineb 75% WP can be used in Jowar for Red Leaf Spot, Leaf Spot and Leaf Blight with the given specific details accordingly. Similarly, it will also show that Zineb 75% WP can also be in Wheat for Blight and Rust with the given specific details.

The Farmonaut database also gives a farmer an option to upvote the given government approved solution. By doing so, Farmonaut ensures another layer of trust on the provided sanitized database. Furthermore, a farmer can also share the database information on to Farmonaut Discussion Forum and several other Social media networks of their choice. A farmer can also save this information locally to his account for a quicker access through their profile.

 

 

At Farmonaut, we jumped one step ahead and added another layer of user friendliness to access our database. We have designed a system which is capable of identifying potential problems with a farmer’s crop just by their voice or text explanation. Read the following article to know in-depth about the Voice-Text Based Crop Issue Identification System.

https://farmonaut.com/blogs/farming-blogs/voice-text-based-crop-issue-identification/

The app is available for android on Google PlayStore: 

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.farmonaut.android

We will keep posting about any such informative information on to our blogs, to help as many people as possible. Farmonaut is built upon a vision to bridge the technological gap between farmers and strives to bring state-of-the-art technologies in the hands of each and every farmer. For any queries/suggestions, please contact us at support@farmonaut.com.

We have some more interesting articles coming up soon. Stay tuned!

Wait!!

Before that…

Follow us at:

Facebook: https://facebook.com/farmonaut

Instagram: https://instagram.com/farmonaut

Twitter: https://twitter.com/farmonaut

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/farmonaut/

Pinterest: https://in.pinterest.com/farmonaut/

Tumblr: https://farmonaut.tumblr.com/

Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYWOOPPKATLgh4L6YRlYFOQ

AppLink: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.farmonaut.android

Website: https://farmonaut.com

Satellite Imagery: https://farmonaut.com/satellite-imagery

Satellite Imagery Samples: https://farmonaut.com/satellite-imagery-samples

Voice-Text Based Crop Issue Identification

In India, several thousand tonnes of crop gets destroyed every year due to incorrect usage of pesticides, insecticides, plant growth regulators etc. Whenever there is a disease outbreak in a farmer’s field, the first person whom they usually look forward to is the local vendor from whom they purchase their farming products like seeds, spraying equipments etc. In India, officially you need to have at least a certain relevant degree before you can start your own fertilizer shop. However, these norms are hardly practiced.

These local vendors have their own interest in mind, since they need to sell the products of the companies from whom they purchase the chemicals in bulk.  Thus, more often than not, with no practical scientific knowledge, they end up suggesting completely incorrect solutions to the farmer.

 

One of the major aims of Farmonaut is to help farmers figure out what the problem is with their crop, and also provide government approved solutions for the problems identified by our system. Though the government has released a scientifically approved database, however the database is highly user inaccessible. The government database is in the form of document file of hundreds of pages. It is really unreasonable to expect a farmer to download this large document and scroll through hundreds of pages to identify what the potential problem is with their crop. At Farmonaut, the first thing we did is to sanitize this government approved database, and present it to the farmers in a user-friendly form.

The segregated database is accessible through our android app and contains government approved information about 100+ crops, 300+ problems and 150+ chemicals (pesticides, insecticides, plant growth regulators etc.). The database includes very specific details of chemical usage such as Quantity, Formulation (g/ml)% and Dilution in water (L).

Read the following article to know in-depth about the Farmonaut Database:

https://farmonaut.com/blogs/farming-blogs/why-farmonaut-database-is-one-of-the-most-trusted-database/

At Farmonaut, we jumped one step ahead and added another layer of user friendliness to access our database. We have designed a system which is capable of identifying potential problems with a farmer’s crop by just their voice or text explanation.

The voice-text based crop issue identification system is available on our Android app. A farmer can simply explain what issues he/she is facing with his crop and our system in real-time will identify the potential problem with the crop as well as the government approved solutions attached with the results as well. Given the vastness of India and a large number of languages being spoken in the Indian subcontinent, we can not expect our system to work only in one specific language. Hence, we have created our system to work in more than 50 languages. The farmers can ask their problems in a language of their choice and can still get government approved solutions in real time.

The following section below shows a few examples of how Farmonaut’s voice-text based crop issue identification system works.

The Voice-text based crop issue identification system works as a chat bot, wherein farmers can ask for the solution to their problems just like someone will message another user on a messaging service. The farmer can simply type their query into the text box or can speak about their query by clicking on the speech button. Once the speech of the farmer is finished or if farmer clicks on the send button after his text information about the problem is ready, the system will process their speech/text to identify the crop as well the problem being faced by the farmer. Upon correct identification of the problem, the system will return all the government approved solutions from which the farmer can select one of his choice.

For example, in the case above, the Farmer has asked in hindi the following query:

Asked Query: आम की फसल की उपज बढ़ाने के कुछ उपाय बताइये| अभी एकदम नयी फसल है|

Our system identifies within seconds that the user is looking for ways to enhance yield of their mango crop and hence, provides all the government approved solutions to the user about chemicals measures to be used to enhance the yield of his/her mango produce.

Some other examples of the Voice-text Based Crop Issue Identification queries are listed below.

There may be times when the voice-text based crop issue identification system is not able to identify the problem properly. There are 4 such cases which we want to highlight.

Case 1:

When our system has correctly identified the crop as well as the problem being faced by the crop, the system still gives the farmer an option to post his query on to the discussion forum to further proof check about his problem from the community.

Case 2: 

When our system has correctly identified the crop of the query but not problem, the farmer can post this unsuccessful query onto the discussion forum to get remedies from the farming community itself.

Case 3:

When our system has not been able to identify both crop as well as the problem, and if the farmer feels that his/her query was correct, they can post this voice-text crop issue identification query on to the discussion forum to get remedies from the farming community.

A detailed article about the discussion forum and Farmonaut database will be available soon.

The app is available for android on Google PlayStore: 

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.farmonaut.android

We will keep posting about any such informative information on to our blogs, to help as many people as possible. Farmonaut is built upon a vision to bridge the technological gap between farmers and strives to bring state-of-the-art technologies in the hands of each and every farmer. For any queries/suggestions, please contact us at support@farmonaut.com.

We have some more interesting articles coming up soon. Stay tuned!

Wait!!

Before that…

Follow us at:

Facebook: https://facebook.com/farmonaut

Instagram: https://instagram.com/farmonaut

Twitter: https://twitter.com/farmonaut

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/farmonaut/

Pinterest: https://in.pinterest.com/farmonaut/

Tumblr: https://farmonaut.tumblr.com/

Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYWOOPPKATLgh4L6YRlYFOQ

AppLink: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.farmonaut.android

Website: https://farmonaut.com

Satellite Imagery: https://farmonaut.com/satellite-imagery

Satellite Imagery Samples: https://farmonaut.com/satellite-imagery-samples